The coin is issued on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the institution of the Equestrian Order of Saint Agatha. The Order, conferred by the Magistrate of Saint Agatha and presided over by His Excellencies the Captains Regent, has from its origin to the present day honoured illustrious and authoritative personalities in the world of politics, science and international culture.
Dedicated to the co-protector of the Republic, it was established by decree of 5 June 1923 as an Order of Chivalry aimed at honouring foreign citizens who have performed positive charitable and other services, for exceptional civil or military services to the Republic or for humanitarian, artistic, political or sporting merits.
The Equestrian Order has five honorary ranks: Cavaliere di Gran Croce, Cavaliere Grande Ufficiale, Commendatore, Cavaliere Ufficiale e Cavaliere.
The decoration consists of a white-enamelled patentee cross, set against a laurel wreath; in the centre is a shield with the effigy of St. Agatha and the epigraph 'Sant'Agata Protettrice' in the circle; on the reverse is the San Marino coat of arms with the inscription 'Bene Merenti'.
The various personalities honoured include, among others, Giulio Andreotti, Francesco Cossiga, Rita Levi Montalcini, Ban Ki-moon.